By Jens Masuch, Manuel Delgado-Restituto
Wireless physique quarter Networks (WBANs) are anticipated to advertise new functions for the ambulatory health and wellbeing tracking of power sufferers and aged inhabitants, aiming to enhance their caliber of lifestyles and independence. those networks are composed by means of instant sensor nodes (WSNs) used for measuring physiological variables (e.g., glucose point in blood or physique temperature) or controlling healing units (e.g., implanted insulin pumps). those nodes may still convey a excessive measure of strength autonomy in an effort to expand their battery lifetime or maybe make the node offer to depend upon harvesting thoughts. as a rule, the facility funds of WSNs is ruled by way of the instant hyperlink and, therefore, many efforts were directed over the last years towards the implementation of strength effective transceivers.
Because of the quick diversity (typically not more than a couple of meters) and coffee info cost (typically in among 10 kb/s and 1 Mb/s), uncomplicated communique protocols could be hired. this sort of protocols, in particular adapted for WBAN purposes, is the Bluetooth low power (BLE) standard.
This publication describes the demanding situations and suggestions for the layout of ultra-low strength transceivers for WBANs functions and offers the implementation info of a BLE transceiver prototype. insurance contains not just the most strategies and architectures for reaching low energy intake, but in addition the main points of the circuit layout and its implementation in a customary CMOS technology.
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Additional info for Ultra Low Power Transceiver for Wireless Body Area Networks
Due to the lower oscillating frequency, the simulated quality factors of the capacitive tuning elements are even higher than for the VCODIV2, namely, larger than 100 for the MOM capacitor bank and larger than 65 for the PMOS varactors. 12 µm for the NMOS and PMOS core transistors, respectively. Coupling between the two cores of the QVCO can be accomplished through the addition of transistors in parallel or in series to the cross-coupled pairs. These coupling transistors combine a direct connection and a cross (inverting) connection between the two VCOs which force them to oscillate in quadrature .
18). Nevertheless, since this dummy divider is always powered down, the load conditions are not perfectly symmetrical for I - and Q-core. However, the resulting phase error due to this effect is less than 1° according to post-layout simulations, which does not require any countermeasure. The modulation of the divider produces periodical patterns of erroneous, but deterministic, charge pump pulses which give rise to spurs at multiples of f ref /10 around the output frequency of the PLL. The width of these predictable pulses are integer multiples of Δt = TLO /10, where TLO is the oscillation period of the QVCO.
These coupling transistors combine a direct connection and a cross (inverting) connection between the two VCOs which force them to oscillate in quadrature . Although coupling transistors in series  achieve a better phase noise performance, they increase the required supply voltage headroom and also the required bias current to start the oscillation. Therefore, a coupling mechanism based on parallel transistors, as shown in Fig. 4, has been chosen. In order to maintain the power consumption low, coupling transistors MCx have a width 4 times smaller than the cross-coupled pairs Mx.