By Kentwood D. Wells
Such as greater than six thousand species, amphibians are extra various than mammals and are came upon on each continent store Antarctica. regardless of the abundance and variety of those animals, many facets of the biology of amphibians stay unstudied or misunderstood. The Ecology and behaviour of Amphibians goals to fill this hole within the literature in this impressive taxon. it's a get together of the variety of amphibian lifestyles and the ecological and behavioral diversifications that experience made it a winning component to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.Synthesizing seventy years of study on amphibian biology, Kentwood D. Wells addresses all significant parts of inquiry, together with phylogeny, type, and morphology; features of physiological ecology comparable to water and temperature relatives, respiratory, metabolism, and energetics; pursuits and orientation; communique and social habit; replica and parental care; ecology and behaviour of amphibian larvae and ecological elements of metamorphosis; ecological influence of predation on amphibian populations and antipredator defenses; and features of amphibian group ecology. With an eye fixed in the direction of smooth matters, The Ecology and behaviour of Amphibians concludes with a bankruptcy dedicated to amphibian conservation.An unparalleled scholarly contribution to amphibian biology, this publication is eagerly expected between experts. (20071128)
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Additional info for The Ecology and Behavior of Amphibians
2006). Given the lack of clear consensus among these studies, I have retained the subfamilial name, without allocating these frogs to a particular family. Natural History: These frogs are unique in that all members of the group have unusual reproductive modes, with eggs being carried in pouches or exposed on the back of the female. In some cases, eggs hatch into tadpoles that are deposited in bromeliads or other bodies of water, but in others, embryos undergo direct development on the female, In at least some species in the genus Stefania, tiny froglets are transported on the back of the female for a period of time after hatching (see chapters 10 and 11 for more details).
Tadpoles of several genera, including Leptobrachella, Leptobrachium, Leptolalax, and Vibrissaphora, have elongate bodies and muscular tails with narrow tail ﬁns (see ﬁg. 17 B in chapter 12). They live mostly in spaces between rocks in rifﬂes of rocky streams (Haas, Hertwig, and Das 2006). Tadpoles of Scutiger and Oreolalax also have muscular tails, as well as clasping or suctorial mouthparts for holding onto rocks in ﬂowing water. Some of tadpoles in these genera are at least partially carnivorous, feeding on other tadpoles and aquatic invertebrates (see ﬁg.
The skin is covered with small hooks or spines that may facilitate climbing on wet rock surfaces. Eggs are laid attached to rocks underwater. Tadpoles have suckerlike mouths that allow them to cling to rocks, where they graze on algae. They are unique among anuran larvae in having relatively large mouths without horny beaks, but they do have many rows of small denticles. Very little is known about the natural history of these frogs. lated to each other. Faivovich et al. (2005) included all ﬁve genera in an analysis based mostly on molecular characters.