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By Richard H. Steckel, Jerome C. Rose

This research gathers skeletal proof on seven simple signs of well-being to evaluate persistent stipulations that affected people who lived within the Western Hemisphere from 5000 B.C. to the overdue 19th century. symptoms of organic pressure in youth and of degeneration in joints and in the teeth elevated within the numerous millenia ahead of the coming of Columbus as populations moved into much less fit ecological environments.

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Note the increase in defects from group I to III at all developmental ages. 4). This method enables us to study the pattern of infant and childhood stress of those who lived to be adolescents and adults. While the index of health used in this volume focuses on LEH on permanent teeth, it should be mentioned that there are other developmental enamel defects, most notably defects in enamel calcification/coloration, commonly called dental opacities or hypocalcification. These defects have an entirely different etiology and should not be confused with LEHs.

Introduction and purpose Analyses of skeletal remains are providing a unique window onto patterns of health in past human populations. 1 However, The ideas developed in this chapter have had a long gestation. For help in the development of these ideas we especially wish to acknowledge George Armelagos and Jerome Rose. Jerome Rose and Paul Sciulli also helped to develop the organization of this chapter. This most recent reincarnation of our ideas about the measurement of stress and adaptation in skeletal remains represents an evolving synthesis of our prior work with new ideas and new developments in the field.

Cultures can also vary in how well different segments of the population are buffered from stressors (Goodman and Armelagos, 1989). The environmental constraints that are not well buffered by the cultural system, along with the newly produced cultural stressors, reach the individual members of the culture. From this point on, adaptation depends on the individual’s level of host resistance, a function of one’s genetic, developmental, and physiological 18 Alan H. Goodman and Debra L. Martin status.

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