By Institution of Railway Signal Engineers (IRSE)
Read or Download IRSE Green Book No.7 Signal Control Circuits (British Practice) Rev 1968 PDF
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Additional resources for IRSE Green Book No.7 Signal Control Circuits (British Practice) Rev 1968
The reverse transit time tR is very important to model the switching property of the lumped bipolar transistor, and it is a strong function of the biasing condition and temperature. Both phenomena are not implemented in the SPICE model. 8 SiGe HBTs The performance of the Si bipolar transistor can be greatly enhanced with proper engineering of the base bandgap proﬁle using a narrower bandgap material, SiGe, an alloy of Si and Ge. 11 Energy band diagram of a graded base SiGe HBT and a comparably constructed Si BJT.
Polysilicon extrinsic base, usually formed during SiGe growth over shallow trench oxide, and additional self-aligned extrinsic implantation to lower base resistance. 10. A silicided extrinsic base. 11. A 100–200 nm thick heavily doped (>5 3 1020=cm3) polysilicon emitter, either implanted or in situ doped. 12. A variety of multiple level back-end-of-line metallization schemes using Al or Cu, typically borrowed from parent CMOS process. 16. References 1. J. J. Ebers and J. M. Moll, Large signal behavior of bipolar transistors.
63, the corresponding density, Cmin, of minimum gate–bulk capacitance is Cmin % Cgb ð2VF Þ % eox =Tox qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ : VF 1 þ 2 Teoxox qNA es (1:76) Observe that the maximum factor by which the effective gate–bulk capacitance can be reduced is sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Cox eox VF , %1þ2 Cmin Tox qNA es (1:77) which involves parameters that are largely out of the control of the circuit designer. 22, this capacitance perturbation requires a surface potential swing extending from roughly À15VT (about À400 mV at 278C) to 2VF (generally smaller than 600 mV).