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This booklet describes strategies for understanding vast bandwidth (125MHz) over-sampled analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in nano meter-CMOS strategies. The authors supply a transparent and whole photograph of approach point demanding situations and functional layout options in high-speed Delta-Sigma modulators. Readers could be enabled to enforce ADCs as continuous-time delta-sigma (CT∆Σ) modulators, delivering basic resistive inputs, which don't require using power-hungry enter buffers, in addition to supplying inherent anti-aliasing, which simplifies approach integration. The authors concentrate on the layout of excessive velocity and wide-bandwidth ΔΣMs that make a step in bandwidth diversity which was once formerly in basic terms attainable with Nyquist converters. extra in particular, this publication describes the steadiness, energy potency and linearity limits of ΔΣMs, aiming at a GHz sampling frequency.
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Extra info for High Speed and Wide Bandwidth Delta-Sigma ADCs
17), and T is the delay between the between the comparator clock and the DFF clock as shown in Fig. 19a. 16). However, for DFF D L =˛, where ˛ is greater than 1, the DFF acts as a gain stage and reduces the metastability of the quantizer. 18) indicates, if Vi n is equal to one of the reference levels (Vref;i ), one of the comparators enters a metastability point, and its output is theoretically zero or undefined. 19) To simplify the calculation, we assume that noise can be neglected and the input of the comparator is uniformly distributed between ˙Vmi n .
16a. 1 D 1=RC . The feedback around the amplifier improves its linearity, but, due to the limited transconductance (gm ) of the amplifier, a signal swing exists at the virtual ground of the integrator, which is indicated as 52 3 Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulators at High Sampling Rates 10 0 Magnitude (dB) −10 −20 −30 −40 −50 Vin1 /Vin −60 Vin2 /Vin Vin3 /Vin −70 Vi3 /Vin BW −80 10−3 10−1 10−2 Normalized frequency (f/fs) [−] Fig. 15 The input-referred transfer functions of the 3rd order high-speed capacitive feedforward CT† modulator.
The metastability errors introduced by this D-FF at the output of the DAC, which are present at the input of the modulator, degrade the performance dramatically. In this book, the bit errors introduced by the D-FF of the feedback DAC are considered as the bit errors of the modulator. In other words, bit-errors of the modulator occur when the output of the DAC which drives the DAC current sources differs from the digital output of the modulator. 26a and b model the BER of the quantizer and the modulator, respectively.