By Linda S. Cordell, Dr. George J. Gumerman
Rising from a faculty of yank examine, this paintings stories the overall prestige of archaeological wisdom in nine key areas of the Southwest to check broader questions of cultural improvement, which affected the Southwest as a complete, and to contemplate an total conceptual version of the prehistoric Southwest after the appearance of sedentism.
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Additional info for Dynamics of Southwest Prehistory
The distribution of sites with platform mounds contrasted with ones outside the Phoenix Basin with ballcourts (partly adapted from Gregory and Nials 1985 and Wilcox and Sternberg 1983). Adobe compounds surround mounds, with structures on the mound tops and within the walls. Regularity can be seen in the placement of mounds in compounds and in the spatial arrangement of these with respect to ballcourts (Gregory 1987). Careful excavation of one Civano phase platform mound and compound produced an estimate of storage function for half of the roofed area (Doyel 1974), suggesting a locus ofredistribution.
The Hohokam area also evidences a change from small, highly localized communities to settlement over a much broader area. house continues in use. Throughout the Southwest, there are more settlements and these occur in varied environmental situations. As our name for the period indicates, there is a definite geographic expansion of settlement and in some areas increased settlement density. We note that the Expansion period in the northern portion of the Southwest is initiated by an interval of depressed water tables, erosion, and low effective moisture.
A widespread trade network is also in place, with the most abundant item being shell. Pioneer subsistence is most often interpreted as emphasizing riverine habitats as the optimal agricultural locales for first fanners in desert basins. Floodwater fanning from rivers often has been cited as the basic early technology (Gladwin et al. 1937; Wilcox 1979; Cable and Doyel 1987), but Haury (1976) reports a Vahki canal at Snaketown. During the Pioneer period in the Salt River Valley, Linda Nicholas and Jill Neitzel (1984) show two relatively simple canal systems capable of delivering water over ten miles from the river.