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By R. M. Steinman, A. Granelli-Piperno, M. Pope, C. Trumpfheller, R. Ignatius, G. Arrode (auth.), Prof. Dr. Alexander Steinkasserer (eds.)

Dendritic cells (DC) are important to urge powerful anti-viral immune responses. although, viruses have built quite a few assorted break out mechanisms with the intention to triumph over the host immune process. a chief aim during this appreciate are DC, for the reason that they're the single antigen offering mobile capable of set off additionally naive T cells. within the current CTMI-volume the interplay among numerous viruses, together with HIV-1, SIV, EBV, measles virus, LCMV and HSV-1, with DC may be defined and mentioned. it is going to develop into transparent to the reader that DC usually play a twin position in the course of viral infections. at the one hand they can mount effective antiviral immune responses, and the opposite hand a number of viruses, together with HIV-1, use DC as a vector to be transferred from the outer edge to the lymph nodes have been they infect their leading aim cells. within the moment a part of this quantity numerous DC particular immune intervention ideas might be awarded. This comprises themes corresponding to DC vaccination techniques in immunotherapy, viral vectors for the genetic amendment of DC and pass presentation of virus contaminated cells through DC.

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2001). Other as yet unidentified HIV-1 trans-receptors could exist and may play a role, especially on DC subsets that do not express DC-SIGN, such as Langerhans cells and plasmacytoid DC (Patterson et al. 2001; Geijtenbeek et al. 2000a). However, HIV-1 gp120 binding alone is not sufficient for transmission of HIV-1 by DCs, because HIV-1 binding and transfer by DC-SIGN have been shown to be dissociable functions (Pohlmann et al. 2001c). Thus, to date, DC-SIGN is the only C-type lectin receptor expressed on DCs that is unique in this function because it not only binds HIV-1 gp120 but also enhances the HIV-1 infection of T cells in trans (Geijtenbeek et al, 2000a).

1994). Quantitation by competitive PCR of HIV-1 proviral DNA in epidermal Langerhans Cells of HIV-infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 7 230– 235 Colino J, Shen Y, and Snapper C. M. (2001). Dendritic cells pulsed with intact Streptococcus pneumoniae elicit both protein- and polysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin isotype responses in vivo through distinct mechanisms. J Exp Med 195 1–14 Colmenares M, Puig-Kroger A, Muniz Pello O, Corbi A. L, and Rivas L. (2002). Dendritic-cell specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN CD209) a C-type surface lectin in human dendritic cells is a receptor for Leishmania amastigotes.

L, Burke D. S, Ho D. D, and Moore J. P. (1997b). HIV-1 strains from subtypes B and E replicate in cutaneous dendritic cell-T cell mixtures without displaying subtype-specific tropism. J Virol 71 8001–8007 Pope M, Gezelter S, Gallo N, Hoffman L, and Steinman R. M. (1995). Low levels of HIV-1 in cutaneous dendritic cells promote extensive viral replication upon binding to memory CD4+ T cells. J Exp Med 182 2045–2056 Porgador A, Irvine K. R, Iwasaki A, Barber B. H, Restifo N. P, and Germain R. N. (1998).

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