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By Charlotte Beck

Scientists who paintings with the strategies of the earlier that depart uncovered or surficial files at the earth's panorama all percentage the matter of relationship those files. long ago, archaeologists and geomorphologists who've tried up to now floor or uncovered phenomena have usually been at a disadvange, in view that ordinary ways like radiocarbon or stratigraphy are mainly now not acceptable. during this quantity archaeologists, geologists, geographers, and physicists speak about tools starting from those who were in life for a while, yet were significantly better, to a number of new ways which were particularly constructed for the relationship of uncovered and floor files. quantity individuals are Peter L. ok. Knuefer, Danny McCarrol, Charlotte Beck, George T. Jones, Ronald I. Dorn, Robert C. Dunnell, James okay. Feathers, Mark D. Kurz, Edward J. Brook, Marek G. Zreda, Fred M. Phillips, John A. Matthews, and Olavi Heikkinen.

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Established Calibrated-Age and Numerical-Age Approaches It is not quite accurate to say that there have been no calibrated-age or numerical-age dating methods in use for exposed features until recently. Lichenometry, for instance, was first used in 1950 (see Beschel 1950) and has seen considerable development since that time. Although its use has been limited for the most part to alpine and polar environments above the tree line, lichenometry has been widely applied to moraine ridges or recently deglaciated terrain in these environments.

One of the difficulties for both geomorphologists and archaeologists has been that dating is generally applied not to the event of interest, or the "target event" (Dunnell and Readhead 1988), but to some other event that must be shown to be associated with the target event. As Dunnell and Readhead (1988) point out, the two are rarely synonymous in either geology or archaeology. What is desperately needed is a set of dating methods that are applicable directly to the exposed physical and cultural features about which chronological information is sought.

These can be summarized as follows: (1) post-depositional disturbance due to natural forces, agricultural practices, and amateur artifact collecting; (2) the lack of congruence between patterned subsurface deposits and nonpatterned surface ones; and (3) the lack of analytical potential, especially chronological control. Regarding the first two of these concerns, a great deal of evaluative work has been undertaken. For instance controlled studies of archaeological remains in plowed fields suggest that lateral movement due to plowing does not result in significant transverse and longitudinal displacement as a result of long-term tillage (Lewarch 1979; Lewarch and O'Brien 1981a; see also Roper 1976; Trubowitz 1978).

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