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By Akihiro Abe, Karel Dusˇek, Shiro Kobayashi, B. Améduri, B. Boutevin, P. Czub, P. Penczek, J. Pielichowski, M.A. Rodríguez-Pérez, A. Taguet

Content material: Unsaturated polyester resins : chemistry and expertise / P. Penczek, P. Czub, J. Pielichowski -- Crosslinked polyolefin foams : creation, constitution, homes, and functions / M.A. Rodriguez-Perez -- Crosslinking of vinylidene fluoride-containing fluoropolymers / A. Taguet, B. Ameduri, B. Boutevin

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Poly(propylene fumarate)s (PPF) were synthesized by the transesterification polycondensation of diethyl fumarate (DEF) with different diols: (±)-1,2-propanediol (PD), (S)-(+)-1,2-propanediol, 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol, and 2,2-dimethyl1,3-propanediol in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (PTSA) or metal-containing catalysts: zinc chloride, aluminum trichloride, tiTable 25 The main absorptions in the IR spectra of UPs [143, 144] Absorption [cm–1 ] Assignment 3560 (small, broad) 3450 (small, broad) 3100 (small, broad) 2870 (strong, sharp) 2800 (medium, sharp) 1700–1740 (strong, sharp) 1650 (medium, sharp) 1580 (small, sharp) 1480 (medium, sharp) 1150–1380 (medium, sharp) 1185 (strong, sharp) 670, 750, 880 (medium, sharp) Stretching OH terminal hydroxyl Stretching OH terminal carboxyl Stretching = C – H olefinic Stretching sym methylene Stretching asym methylene Stretching C = O ester Stretching – C = C – olefinic Stretching – C = C – aromatic and olefinic Bend methylene Stretching – C – O – C – Stretching – C – O – (C = O) – cis-olefinic and aromatic residues Unsaturated Polyester Resins 53 tanium tetrabutoxide and titanium tetrachloride.

The well-known commercial amino-terminated butadieneacrylonitrile copolymer (ATBN) reacted with maleic anhydride to form maleimide-terminated liquid butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber [73]. A standard two-stage procedure was applied. In the first stage, maleamic acid was formed by the opening of the anhydride ring by the amino group. Then, in the second stage, maleimide rings were closed by the dehydration of maleamic acid amide groups with sodium acetate dissolved in acetic anhydride (Fig. 13). Thus, a maleimide-terminated liquid butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (iTBN) was obtained.

The morphology of the crosslinked copolymers was investigated using TEM and SEM. Unsaturated Polyester Resins 37 Fig. 13 Synthesis of maleimide terminated liquid butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber The addition of the rubber component resulted in a decrease in the modulus and yield stress. However, toughening and an improvement in the impact behavior were observed. The phase separation and formation of the rubbery domains played an important role. In a previous contribution [74], a hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene rubber was transformed into an isocyanate-terminated polybutadiene.

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