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16 38 SURVEYING D = AB cos α = 347. 13 m. Alternatively, for small angles, α = 1 radians = 2 o17′31′′ , which gives the same value of 25 D as above. 86 m C From Fig. 87 m B Fig. 2. A tape of standard length 20 m at 85°F was used to measure a base line. 50 m. 5 × 10–6 per °F. 3. A base line was measured by tape suspended in catenary under a pull of 145 N, the mean temperature being 14°C. 2. 106 If the tape was standardized on the flat under a pull of 95 N at 18°C determine the correct length of the line.

12 The infrared based EDM equipments fall within the electro-optical group. Nowadays, most local survey and setting out for engineering works are being carried out using these EDM’s. The infrared EDM has a passive reflector, using a retrodioptive prism to reflect the transmitted infrared wave to the master. The distances of 1-3 km can be measured with an accuracy of ± 5 mm. Many of these instruments have microprocessors to produce horizontal distance, difference in elevation, etc. Over long ranges (up to 100 km with an accuracy of ± 50 mm) electronic or microwave instruments are generally used.

43) the value of n1 can be determined. 14 Effect of Atmospheric Conditions All electromagnetic waves travel with the same velocity in a vacuum. The velocity of the waves is reduced when travelling through atmosphere due to retarding effect of atmosphere. Moreover, the velocity does not remain constant due to changes in the atmospheric conditions. The wavelength λ of a wave of frequency f has the following relationship with its velocity V. λ= V f EDM instruments use electromagnetic waves, any change in V will affect λ and thus the measurement of the distance is also affected because the distance is measured in terms of wavelengths.

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