By R. Braude (auth.), P. L’Hermite, J. Dehandtschutter (eds.)
This e-book constitutes the lawsuits of a Workshop held in Bordeaux (France) on eighth - tenth October, 1980, below the auspices of the Commissior: of the ecu groups, as a part of the CEC learn programme on 'Effluents from farm animals' and the Concerted motion price sixty eight bis 'Treatment and Use of Sewage Sludge'. significant adjustments have taken position in farm animals construction strategies in recent times. probably the most very important advancements has been within the box of animal foodstuff. Animals are fed to realize greatest liveweight in shut courting with industry necessities for carcass and meat caliber. in regards to pig creation, nutritional formula relies on medical ideas and feed encompasses a huge number of elements to provide optimal feed rations for 'standardised' animals. for you to elevate development price and to enhance feed conversion, copper is further to the ratio~s of fattening pigs in a couple of nations, based on the provisions of Council Directives referring to ingredients in feedingstuffs, as final amended through the twenty third fee Directive of 4th July 1980.
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Additional info for Copper in Animal Wastes and Sewage Sludge: Proceedings of the EEC Workshop organised by the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Station d’Agronomie, Bordeaux, France, and held at Bordeaux, October 8–10, 1980
1955). The primary cause of the lesions in bone structures is probably a reduction of the Cu-enzyme, amine oxidase, leading to diminished stability and strength of bone collagen as the result of an impaired cross-linkage of their polypeptide chains. , 1957). The cytochrome oxidase activity of the heart muscle is reduced affecting oxygen supply to the heart. Ceruloplasmin plays an essential role in the recovery of the cytochrome oxidase activity indicating that Cu is incorporated into cytochrome oxidase only if it is presented to the cell as ceruloplasmin (Broman, 1964).
First of all, with regard to feeding copper to piglets, we have never recommended feeding copper to piglets. Our evidence shows that copper should be included from 20 kg liveweight onwards. There is no firm evidence available on the effect of feeding copper to pigs below this weight. As far as the level for older pigs is concerned, in my view the evidence is overwhelming that if you feed at 125 ppm you are wasting your time because instead of one in six pigs not responding, you will get two in six responding.
These toxic intermediates are eliminated by a team of protective enzymes: superoxide dismutase (mainly Cu and Zn), Mn and Fe-enzymes, peroxidase and catalase. Further, cyrochrome oxidase, a Cu-haemoprotein, probably the single most crucial metalloenzyme of the mammalian cell in oxidative pathways, underlines the physiological importance of Cu. The important interaction between Cu and Zn has received further support, as Zn-proteins have recently been demonstrated to be constituents of DNA and RNA polymerases, indicating the importance of the interactions of Cu, Fe and Zn in oxidative processes on the cellular level.