By James A. Cherry, W. Martin Snelgrove
Between analog-to-digital converters, the delta-sigma modulator has cornered the marketplace on excessive to very excessive answer converters at reasonable speeds, with average purposes reminiscent of electronic audio and instrumentation. curiosity has lately elevated in delta-sigma circuits equipped with a continuous-time loop filter out instead of the extra universal switched-capacitor technique. Continuous-time delta-sigma modulators supply much less noisy digital floor nodes on the enter, inherent safety opposed to sign aliasing, and the aptitude to exploit a actual instead of an electric integrator within the first degree for novel purposes like accelerometers and magnetic flux sensors. extra considerably, they sit back settling time regulations in order that modulator clock premiums might be raised. This opens the opportunity of wideband (1 MHz or extra) converters, very likely to be used in radio functions at an intermediate frequency in order that a number of phases of combining can be performed within the electronic area.
Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulators for High-Speed A/D Conversion: thought, perform and primary functionality Limits covers all points of continuous-time delta-sigma modulator layout, with specific emphasis on layout for top clock speeds. The authors clarify the suitable layout of such modulators when it comes to the well-understood discrete-time modulator layout challenge and supply layout examples in Matlab. additionally they conceal commonly-encountered non-idealities in continuous-time modulators and the way they degrade functionality, plus a wealth of fabric at the major difficulties (feedback course delays, clock jitter, and quantizer metastability) in very high-speed designs and the way to prevent them. additionally they supply a concrete layout strategy for a true high-speed circuit which illustrates the tradeoffs within the choice of key parameters. special circuit diagrams, simulation effects and try effects for an built-in continuous-time four GHz band-pass modulator for A/D conversion of one GHz analog indications also are offered.
Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulators for High-Speed A/D Conversion: concept, perform and primary functionality Limits concludes with a few promising modulator architectures and a listing of the demanding situations that stay during this interesting box.
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Extra info for Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulators for High-Speed A D Conversion: Theory, Practice and Fundamental Performance Limits (The International Series in Engineering and Computer Science)
The input to the CT open-loop diagram is the output bit y(n). This is a discrete-time quantity—it only ever changes at sampling instants. 1a as a full-period rectangular pulse. This pulse is filtered by the loop filter (s), then sampled, where it becomes the discrete-time output of the open-loop system Designing CT Modulators 31 x(n) (as well as being the input to the quantizer). In the DT open-loop diagram, the signals never leave the DT domain. Note that for both CT and DT loops, the input and output of the open-loop diagrams are both DT quantities.
We discuss both and how to alleviate them below. LEAKAGE AND WINDOWING If there exists a tone in the input signal at a frequency that does not fall exactly in the center of a frequency bin, then leakage will result: instead of a sharp “spike” in one spectrum bin, the tone will become spread over several adjacent bins. , at a finite number of points); this is akin to taking the FFT of an infinite stretch of data multiplied by a rectangular window that is 1 for the duration of the finite stretch and 0 elsewhere.
Med95] goes even further: the user specifies modulator parameters such as required resolution, clock rate, and power consumption, and then the program can design and automatically produce the circuit layout for a complete SC modulator which meets the specifications. Clearly, a first-time DT ∆Σ M designer has plenty of options for generating an output bit sequence relatively quickly while still including the effects of relevant nonidealities. 2 CONTINUOUS-TIME MODULATOR SIMULATION The situation for CT ∆Σ Ms is perhaps not as good, most likely because there has been considerably less attention devoted to the design of CT ∆Σ M s .