By Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Jürgen Warnatz, Prof. Dr. Ulrich Maas, Prof. Dr. Robert W. Dibble (auth.)
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Extra info for Combustion: Physical and Chemical Fundamentals, Modeling and Simulation, Experiments, Pollutant Formation
L; = 0. G Fig. 2. L? L? 39) 0. L? 41) one obtains two thermodynamic relations very important for the following considerations, i. 41 ). 42) gives an expression allowing calculation of the equilibrium constant from thermodynamic data ( A0 = free energy corresponding to G0 ). 8 Determination of Equilibrium Compositions in Gases In this section the calculation of equilibrium compositions of the burnt gases in combustion processes will be described. Ethylene-oxygen combustion will be used as a representative example.
If necessary, the system can be extended to describe trace species as well. 9). Hydrocarbons (e. , the fuel C 2H4 ) are present in only very small amounts in the burnt gas of a stoichiometric mixture (to be verified later). In fuel-rich mixtures only CH4 (methane) and C 2H2 (acetylene) have to be accounted for. If the oxidizer is air, N2 and (if desired) pollutants like NO and HCN can be added. Determination of the Components of the System: Each mixture of S species (compounds) has a certain small number K of components (e.
4) Therefore, the change of the internal energy U equals the heat transferred at constant volume. Very often chemical processes take place at constant pressure. 5) dH=dU+pdV+ Vdp. 7) dH=OQ+ Vdp or dH = oQ for p = const. 4) in calorimeters, e. g. , in a combustion bomb. This is a closed (no mass transfer) constant volume tank; see Fig. 1. A chemical compound is mixed with oxygen and then burnt, usually at high pressure to guarantee complete reaction . The combustion bomb is placed in a large water bath which is thermally isolated with respect to the surroundings.