By Cecilia Gimeno Gasca, Santiago Celma Pueyo, Concepción Aldea Chagoyen
This e-book introduces readers to the layout of adaptive equalization recommendations built-in in typical CMOS know-how for high-speed serial hyperlinks. given that continuous-time equalizers provide a variety of merits instead to discrete-time equalizers at multi-gigabit premiums, this publication offers an in depth description of continuous-time adaptive equalizers layout - either at transistor and process levels-, their major features and performances. The authors commence with a whole overview and research of the cutting-edge of equalizers for wireline functions, describing why they're important, their forms, and their major functions. subsequent, theoretical basics of continuous-time adaptive equalizers are explored. Then, new buildings are proposed to enforce the various construction blocks of the adaptive equalizer: line equalizer, loop-filters, strength comparator, and so forth. The authors exhibit the layout of a whole low-power, low-voltage, high-speed, continuous-time adaptive equalizer. ultimately, a cheap CMOS receiver which include the proposed continuous-time adaptive equalizer is designed for 1.25 Gb/s optical communications via 50-m size, 1-mm diameter plastic optical fiber (POF).
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Extra resources for CMOS Continuous-Time Adaptive Equalizers for High-Speed Serial Links
11 Block diagram of a continuous-time split-path equalizer signal also limit using a feedback loop amplifier in high-frequency range. Gm-C split-path amplifiers-based equalizers [CHE07, KUD03] divide the signal in two paths. One path comprises a high-pass filter or peak-response filter to amplify the high-frequency component. Another path is an all-pass filter or a low-pass filter to match the time delay of the first path. Weighted sum of the two paths is equivalent to a variant gain high-pass filter, whose gain factor can be varied by controlling the weight of those two paths.
J. Annema, B. Nauta, A 3-Gb/s optical detector in standard CMOS for 850-nm optical communication. IEEE J. P. Rao, N. J. Hurst, Correcting the effects of mismatches in time-interleaved analog adaptive FIR equalizers. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap. 59(11), 2529–2542 (2012) [RYL01] S. Rylov, A. Rylyakov, J. Tierno, M. Immediato, M. Beakes, M. Kapur, P. Ampadu, D. 3 GSample/s 10-tap digital fir filter for magnetic recording read channels, in Proceedings of International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC), Feb 2001, pp.
The main implementations are the least mean squares (LMS) [KRA08, LEE94], the zero forcing (ZF) [ABE05], or their variations. The LMS algorithm optimizes the filter coefficients based on minimizing the mean-squared error. It has a simple computational complexity but a slow convergence [ATE13]. The ZF algorithm brings down the ISI to zero in a free noise case. However, when the channel is noisy, the ZF equalizer will amplify the noise greatly [ATE13]. 15 shows the adaptive equalizer concept with training sequences.