By Dixian Zhao, Patrick Reynaert
This booklet makes a speciality of the improvement of layout strategies and methodologies for 60-GHz and E-band strength amplifiers and transmitters at machine, circuit and format degrees. The authors convey the new improvement of millimeter-wave layout suggestions, specifically of energy amplifiers and transmitters, and offers novel layout ideas, similar to “power transistor format” and “4-way parallel-series energy combiner”, which can increase the output energy and potency of energy amplifiers in a compact silicon region. 5 cutting-edge 60-GHz and E-band designs with measured effects are established to end up the effectiveness of the layout innovations and hands-on methodologies offered. This e-book serves as a worthwhile reference for circuit designers to strengthen millimeter-wave construction blocks for destiny 5G applications.
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Additional info for CMOS 60-GHz and E-band Power Amplifiers and Transmitters
11) where Zo is the characteristic line impedance, l the length of the T-line, and the propagation constant. 686 dB. 5 T−line 2 5 T−line 3 0 0 20 40 60 0 80 100 120 140 160 0 Frequency [GHz] 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Frequency [GHz] Fig. 21 Simulated characteristics of three T-lines. 21 shows the simulated characteristics of these three differential T-lines. The line impedance of T-line 3 is only half of T-line 1. The effective dielectric permittivity in Fig. 13) p where c (D 3 108 m/s) is the speed of light.
However, the problem of RTMOM capacitors is that the signals in different layers are also fed from different directions. This increases the series resistance and inductance associated with the feeding lines. In addition, it is time-consuming to simulate the structure of RTMOM capacitors in EM-simulator. Both MOM and RTMOM capacitors in Fig. 16 are implemented with the bottom six metal layers, occupying silicon area of about 10 m2 . 17 shows the simulated results where the MOM capacitor is simulated with and without edge mesh.
13 compares the simulated -factor with and without the transformer for both differential- and common-mode signal from 10 to 90 GHz. When the input transformer is added in the simulation, the amplifier is unconditionally stable in both differential and common modes. 1 Inductors and Loss Mechanisms The spiral inductors are the most commonly used passive components at RF frequencies to tune out the parasitics or to improve the power matching. Compared to transmission lines, they usually occupy less silicon area and ensure a compact floor plan.