By Gerald L. Potter, Michael Fiorino (auth.), Hervé Le Treut (eds.)
Current weather versions diverge of their evaluation of world warming that would outcome from the anthropogenic elevate in hint gases. this is why they vary of their illustration of the hydrological cycle (water vapour, clouds, snow and sea ice, soil moisture) and since an instantaneous validation when it comes to sensitivity isn't really attainable. oblique tools and ways are hence essential to make certain the versions successfully. The e-book presents an outline on varied validation techniques. using satellite tv for pc facts is especially stressed.
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Extra info for Climate Sensitivity to Radiative Perturbations: Physical Mechanisms and Their Validation
Slingo, 1987) for which the convective cloud cover is deduced from the precipitation rate whereas the stratiform clouds are diagnosed from relative humidity. The second "long run" is performed with the new prognostic cloud scheme of M. Tiedtke (Tiedtke, 1993). Prognostic cloud schemes, for which the liquid water is a variable of the model, affect not only the radiative impact of clouds but also the moisture cycle in the model via, for example, the representation of anvil and cirrus clouds associated with cumulus updrafts.
In order to better understand the possible phase differences in the seasonal cycles, the 5year mean dominant EOF time coefficients for all of the models and observations are shown in Fig. 4. As expected the observations and many of the models have maxima during July/August and minima during February. However, a number of models, indicated by the short dashed lines, have maxima and minima which lead the observations by about two months. Other models, indicated by longer dashes, have coefficients with smaller, but identifiable phase errors.
An equivalent radius of the cluster is defined from its surface and assuming a "circular" shape. The surface ratio covered by clusters in a given radius class and for thresholds 249K and 271K is plotted on figure 5 for all tropical regions between 33°N and 33°S and between 45°W and 45°E (Le. the Meteosat domain). These results only concern the two "long runs" for which the grid fraction is underestimated at all thresholds smaller than 271K (figure 3). For Tiedtke's scheme, while the shape of the distribution is fairly well reproduced, there is an underestimate of the occurrence of the smallest and the largest "clusters" for both thresholds at the expense of clusters with radius around 250km (400km) for the threshold 249K (271K).