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The character of technologies, as well as their social implications, is thus problematised and opened up for enquiry. Williams and Edge (1996) thus adopt a tripartite analytical framework which includes (i) the negotiability of technology (ii) the assumed irreversibility of technology and (iii) the critique of the technological closure associated with technological determinism. SST stresses the negotiability of technology, highlighting the scope for particular groups and forces to shape technologies to their ends and the possibility of different kinds of technological and social outcome.

Such choices could have differing implications for society and for particular social groups. The character of technologies, as well as their social implications, is thus problematised and opened up for enquiry. Williams and Edge (1996) thus adopt a tripartite analytical framework which includes (i) the negotiability of technology (ii) the assumed irreversibility of technology and (iii) the critique of the technological closure associated with technological determinism. SST stresses the negotiability of technology, highlighting the scope for particular groups and forces to shape technologies to their ends and the possibility of different kinds of technological and social outcome.

It thus would appear to exist on the fringes of mainstream journalism. ), they are a collectivist undertaking. e. news bulletin, documentary, etc. Journalism is therefore built around team-work or collectivism. Even free-lance journalists – some of whom have arrogated to themselves the status of ‘citizen journalists’ – end up having their work collectivised as soon as it gets into the organisational/ institutional mainstream of media production. This is an important point to make because it raises questions about whether or not certain types of citizen journalism can indeed be as revolutionary as is often claimed (cf.

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