Download Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical by Michael Richard Thomas Dumper, Bruce Stanley PDF

By Michael Richard Thomas Dumper, Bruce Stanley

It is a complete reference paintings on significant historic and smooth towns within the center East and North Africa from their beginnings to the current day. The editors supply 5000 years of old insurance as they hint the total trajectory of every urban, talk about ties to different towns and current a comparative research of the sector. The A-Z entries characteristic information regarding each one citys position, geography, demographics, weather and environmental matters, historic and classical historical past, Islamic background, post-1800 CE historical past, structure, non secular importance, cultural concerns, society, municipal positive aspects, financial concerns and modern tendencies. Introductory essays discover normal background and historiography, city making plans and modernization, poverty, interplay among towns, social welfare, tradition, identification concerns and where of those towns in the global economic system.

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Extra resources for Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia

Sample text

Ultimately, the shipping center was relocated to Karg Island, and the refining of petrochemicals was moved to Bandar Imam Khomeini. This economic challenge to Abadan was staved off in 1966 by the creation of a joint company, Abadan Petrochemical Company,between the National Petroleum Company (NPC) and B. F. Goodrich for the production of polyvinyl chloride, dodecyl benzene, and caustic soda. Other employment opportunities appeared, courtesy of companies such as Nippon Petrochemical, or with various government and municipal services.

By 1930, although the technology of the refinery was by this time seriously out of date, its capacity rose to 5 million, and by the end of World War II the recrafted Abadan oil refinery was producing more than 17 million tons annually. This culminated in 1960, when it officially became the world’s biggest oil refinery, producing 21 million tons per year. The centrality of Abadan for oil production has resulted in numerous political crises concerning control of its chief product. The first was in 1921, when Standard Oil of New Jersey, an American company, obtained an oil concession near Abadan.

For the Abbasids with their capital in Baghdad, it was one of their ports leading outward to the riches of the world. Its importance to navigation and shipping goes back to the earliest period after its founding, with the building of a wooden lighthouse in 951. Abadan’s role as guardian of access into and out of the Persian Gulf has continued up to the recent Gulf wars. In medieval times, dates formed the major crop and remained until the twentieth century the primary source of income for Abadan’s inhabitants.

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