By Terry Des Jardins
This leading edge, best-selling publication offers the main whole and exact information regarding the constitution and serve as of the breathing process. The relevance to breathing care perform sincerely units this source aside, with medical eventualities to problem your software of ideas and formulation in addition to various illustrations of universal pathological stipulations comparable to cystic fibrosis, continual bronchitis, and bronchial asthma.
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A necessary instrument for all physicians who deal with sufferers with breathing sickness
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Additional info for Cardiopulmonary Anatomy & Physiology: Essentials for Respiratory Care, 5th Edition
The production of IgE antibodies may be 20 times greater than normal in some patients with CHAPTER 1 The Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System 29 Figure 1–19 Immunologic mechanisms. Antigen Peripheral lymphoid tissue IgE A Sensitized mast cell Histamine Heparin Smooth-muscle contraction SRS-A Antigen PAF B IgE interaction ECF-A Leukotrienes Asthma attack C asthma (the normal IgE antibody level in the serum is about 200 ng/mL). During an asthmatic attack, the patient demonstrates bronchial edema, bronchospasms and wheezing, increased mucous production, mucous plugging, air trapping, and lung hyperinflation (Figure 1–19C).
Describe the structure and function of the following components of the bronchial blood supply: —Bronchial arteries —Azygos veins —Hemiazygos veins —Intercostal veins Describe the structure and function of the following sites of gas exchange: —Respiratory bronchioles —Alveolar ducts —Alveolar sacs —Primary lobule • Acinus • Terminal respiratory unit • Lung parenchyma • Functional units Discuss the structure and function of the following components of the alveolar epithelium: 19. 20. 21. 22. —Alveolar cell types • Type I cell (squamous pneumocyte) • Type II cell (granular pneumocyte) —Pulmonary surfactant —Pores of Kohn —Alveolar macrophages (Type III alveolar cells) Describe the structure and function of the interstitium, including the: —Tight space —Loose space Describe the structure and function of the following components of the pulmonary vascular system: —Arteries • Tunica intima • Tunica media • Tunica adventitia —Arterioles (resistance vessels) • Endothelial layer • Elastic layer • Smooth-muscle fibers —Capillaries • Single squamous epithelial layer —Venules and veins (capacitance vessels) Describe the structure and function of the following components of the lymphatic system: —Lymphatic vessels —Lymphatic nodes —Juxta-alveolar lymphatic vessels Describe how the following components of the autonomic nervous system relate to the neural control of the lungs: —Sympathetic nervous system • Neural transmitters • Epinephrine • Norepinephrine • Receptors ⅙ Beta2 receptors ⅙ Alpha receptors —Parasympathetic nervous system • Neural transmitters ⅙ Acetylcholine (continues) SECTION ONE The Cardiopulmonary System—The Essentials 6 23.
The cuneiform cartilages are embedded within the aryepiglottic folds that extend from the apices of the arytenoid cartilages to the epiglottis. They probably act to stiffen the folds. The two corniculate cartilages lie superior to the arytenoid cartilages. Interior of the Larynx The interior portion of the larynx is lined by a mucous membrane that forms two pairs of folds that protrude inward. The upper pair are called the false vocal folds, because they play no role in vocalization. The lower pair functions as the true vocal folds (vocal cords).