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Thus Lenin laid down the guiding principles for what were to become the first Communist front organisations. However, these original Leninist ideas were soon refined in important ways . As the concept developed , Moscow considered that front organisations should, as a matter of tactics, be separated administratively from the workings of the national Communist parties. While the primary aim ofCommunist parties was to achieve and then retain political power, the role of front organisations was one of disguised manipulation and agitation in support of the Party's eventual goals.

Uun- :"nclear w .. a r \\'eapons ) whos.. purpose is to a lli'n th .. conduct ofthr- t act icn l ha t t!... 1:"1' is norrnallv used in this hook . 24 Campaigns Against Western Defence more probable situation of blackmail or intimidation by the threat ofaggression. If the threat is not likely to be carried out, it loses its force. Since it is central to the Alliance's philosophy, and has been publicly stated on many occasions, that NATO's weapons will never be used except in response to attack, this strategy provides a firm basis for the prevention of war.

From its inception, the Alliance had to devise a strategic doctrine under the shadow of vast Soviet superiority in conventional forces, very little room for manoeuvre in depth and the prospect of a developing Soviet nuclear capability following the first Soviet atomic test of August 1949. It had barely started on this task when the Communist invasion ofSouth Korea took place in June, 1950. This was taken by the Alliance as an indication of what might happen in Europe. There were only 200 000 poorlyarmed Allied occupation forces in Western Germany, and in all no more than 14 Allied divisions and 1000 aircraft in Western Europe, compared with between 175 and 200 Soviet divisions and 20 000 aircraft.

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