By Sleiman Bou-Sleiman, Mohammed Ismail
This ebook will introduce layout methodologies, referred to as Built-in-Self-Test (BiST) and Built-in-Self-Calibration (BiSC), which counterpoint the robustness of radio frequency (RF) and millimeter wave (mmWave) built-in circuits (ICs). those circuits are utilized in present and rising verbal exchange, computing, multimedia and biomedical items and microchips. The layout methodologies offered will lead to bettering the yield (percentage of operating chips in a excessive quantity run) of RF and mmWave ICs so that it will permit winning production of such microchips in excessive quantity.
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Additional resources for Built-in-Self-Test and Digital Self-Calibration for RF SoCs
To increase resource re-use and reduce overhead, the presence of a ﬂexible DSP in the digital backend can be leveraged to customize test signals, in line with digital signal synthesis . The test signals can be representative of symbols, such as patterns used for BER and EVM tests, or the digital equivalents of analog tones, for use in component level speciﬁcation testing. The latter setup combines the DSP with the interfacing transmitter DAC and analog baseband to generate single or multi-tone test sources, at baseband frequencies.
PLLs as frequency synthesizers need to provide programmable frequency shifts to accommodate the different channel requirements dictated by the communication standards. Important synthesizer metrics are the center frequency, lock range, settling time, and phase error. The center frequency needs to be free of frequency and phase offsets to ensure proper mixing and signal transmission/reception. The synthesizer has to be able to lock to all the frequencies of relevance and when instructed to change frequencies, do so in reasonable time (settling time).
The range of attenuation should encompass all testing needs. For example, the lower limit of attenuation should still allow for tests that require large signals, such as compression tests, to be performed between transmitter and receiver. Therefore, it is very important to analyze these critical loopback elements . Internal node accessibility: Apart from the loopback element that establishes the path between the transmitter and receiver and enables variable attenuation levels, RF components in the middle of the chains cannot be directly accessed for characterization and individual testing.