By Rajesh P. N. Rao
The belief of interfacing minds with machines has lengthy captured the human mind's eye. contemporary advances in neuroscience and engineering are making this a fact, beginning the door to restoring and in all probability augmenting human actual and psychological functions. scientific purposes resembling cochlear implants for the deaf and deep mind stimulation for Parkinson's disorder have gotten more and more usual. mind- machine interfaces (BCIs) (also often called mind- computer interfaces or BMIs) at the moment are being explored in purposes as diversified as safety, lie detection, alertness tracking, telepresence, gaming, schooling, paintings, and human augmentation. This creation to the sphere is designed as a textbook for higher- point undergraduate and primary 12 months graduate classes in neural engineering or mind- machine interfacing for college students from quite a lot of disciplines. it will possibly even be used for self- examine and as a reference via neuroscientists, desktop scientists, engineers, and scientific practitioners. Key positive aspects contain: crucial heritage in neuroscience, mind recording and stimulation applied sciences, sign processing, and laptop studying вЂў particular description of the key sorts of BCIs in animals and people, together with invasive, semi-invasive, noninvasive, stimulating, and bidirectional BCIs вЂў In-depth dialogue of BCI purposes and BCI ethics вЂў Questions and workouts in each one bankruptcy вЂў helping website with annotated checklist of booklet- similar hyperlinks
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Additional info for Brain-Computer Interfacing: An Introduction
The reader is referred to neuroscience textbooks such as those by Bear et al. (2007) and Kandel et al. (2012) for a more in-depth treatment. The human nervous system can be broadly divided into the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). ). The CNS consists of the brain and the spinal cord. The spinal cord is the main pathway that conveys descending motor-control signals from the brain to muscles all over the body and ascending sensory feedback information from the muscles and skin back to the brain.
A major component of the midbrain is the tectum, which is composed of the inferior and superior colliculus, and is involved in the control of eye movements and visual and auditory reflexes. Also in the midbrain is the tegmentum, composed of the reticular formation and other nuclei, which modulates muscle reflexes, pain perception, and breathing, among other functions. 5) that is responsible for the coordination of movements. Farther up from the base of the brain is the diencephalon, which includes the thalamus and the hypothalamus.
The most common type of neuron in the cortex is the pyramidal neuron, populations of which are arranged in columns oriented perpendicular to the cortical surface. The surface of the cortex is convoluted, with fissures known as sulci and ridges known as gyri. 6) – that is, each area of the cortex is specialized for a particular function. For example, the occipital areas near the back of the head specialize in basic visual processing while the parietal areas toward the top of the head specialize in spatial reasoning and motion processing.