By Antonio Claret, Alvaro Giménez (auth.), F. Carlos Lázaro, Maria J. Arévalo (eds.)
More than half all stars within the universe shaped and developed as binary structures and their research is key for knowing stellar and galactic evolution. The six lectures during this publication provide either a readable creation and an updated evaluate of approximately all points of present learn into binary stars, together with the variety from universal binaries to extra unique platforms composed of white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes.
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Additional info for Binary Stars. Selected Topics on Observations and Physical Processes: Lectures Held at the Astrophysics School XII Organized by the European Astrophysics Doctoral Network (EADN) in La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain, 6–17 September 1999
When a model atmosphere is compared to an observed spectrum the eﬀects of irradiation are not normally taken into account. By inspecting Fig. 7 it can be seen that, for some regions of the spectrum, standard spectra with less metals reproduce the irradiated models better than those with the original chemical composition. This means that systematic errors may be introduced in the interpretation of 24 A. Claret and A. Gim´enez Fig. 6. Theoretical shift in the eﬀective temperature due to irradiation as a function of the relative ﬂux (continuous line).
2, is now used as good evidence that it is the true location of the solar dynamo. However, this might not be the case for giant stars, or for contracting pre-main-sequence stars, where the evolution of the stellar interior redistributes its mass and thus possibly also redistributes the interior angular momentum. Historically, Kraft ,  separated between two cases (see also Gray ): First, angular momentum is not exchanged radially but is conserved in “shells” and its total amount is conserved with time as the star evolves: (Iω)surface 2 = (Iω)surface ZAMS 2 k0 M R0 v0 today k M Rvshell = R0 vshell = v0 .
Observational data seems to actually indicate the apparent metal deﬁciency of the cooler components of Algol-type stars (Claret and Gim´enez 1992). Limb-darkening of irradiated atmospheres. Irradiated models show limbdarkening coeﬃcients very diﬀerent from those for non-irradiated models with the same eﬀective temperature and log g. This means that the use of coeﬃcients computed from non-irradiated model atmospheres is not the correct procedure in the case of some types of binaries like classical Algols (Claret and Gim´enez 1990; see Fig.