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By Douglass W. Bailey

Интересная книга для праисторий Балксанского полуострова

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We turn first to the beginnings of the upper Palaeolithic and note differences between it and the core areas of the European Palaeolithic; then we examine the evidence for early symbolic expressions of individual and group identities. 3 Transition to the upper Palaeolithic In the Balkans, the changes which mark the earliest appearance of modern humans, as documented at Bacho Kiro at 46,000 BP, were not as drastic as elsewhere in 15 SETTING THE SCENE (BEFORE 6500 BC) Europe. Sites with early upper Palaeolithic material suggest that the transition was gradual At two key Bulgarian caves, Bacho Kiro and Temnata Dupka, the evidence for a measured transition includes types and frequencies of diagnostic material culture and patterns of environmental, climatic and faunal continuity which, significantly, were dissimilar from contemporary events in the core areas of Europe in the late Pleistocene.

1). 1 Summary of expressive material culture from the upper Palaeolithic levels of Bacho Kiro and Temnata Dupka (after Kozlowski 1982; Kozlowski et al. 1992; Kozlowski et al. 1 continued SETTING THE SCENE (BEFORE 6500 BC) Different contexts of identity expression In the middle Palaeolithic, the materials and practices that contributed to the creation and maintenance of individuals’ identities were found in time-consuming and skill-expressive activities such as knapping elaborate tools and foraging and hunting for and distributing butchered meat.

Typical Aurignacian elements, such as high end-scrapers, are not present. It is only in layers 6a and 7 that a typical Aurignacian assemblage appears at the site; the frequency of end-scrapers equals that of retouched blades, and bone points (with round cross-sections) appear more frequently as, for the first time, do carinated end-scrapers and burins. Climatic, floral and fauna components of the transition In terms of at least some of the earliest upper Palaeolithic material, therefore, the transition to the upper Palaeolithic appears as a gradual shift and not a sharp replacement of entire sets of tools and technologies.

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