By Susanne Mertens
Neutrinos remain the main mysterious and, arguably, the main attention-grabbing debris of the normal version as their intrinsic houses corresponding to absolute mass scale and CP homes are unknown. The open query of absolutely the neutrino mass scale might be addressed with exceptional accuracy through the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) scan, at the moment below building. This thesis focusses at the spectrometer a part of KATRIN and heritage procedures therein. a variety of historical past assets equivalent to small Penning traps, in addition to nuclear decays from unmarried radon atoms are totally characterised right here for the 1st time. most significantly, in spite of the fact that, it used to be attainable to lessen the historical past within the spectrometer by way of greater than 5 orders of importance through casting off Penning traps and via constructing a totally new history relief procedure through stochastically heating trapped electrons utilizing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR). The paintings fantastically demonstrates that the stumbling blocks and demanding situations in measuring absolutely the mass scale of neutrinos should be met effectively if novel experimental instruments (ECR) and novel computing equipment (KASSIOPEIA) are mixed to permit virtually background-free tritium ß-spectroscopy.
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Additional resources for Background Processes in the Electrostatic Spectrometers of the KATRIN Experiment
12 Sep 2011 Majorana homepage. edu/. 04 June 2009 R. Beuselinck, J. Sedgbeer, Y. Shitov, The supernemo experiment. htm. M. E. Spivak, A method for measuring the electron antineutrino rest mass. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. , Sect. A 240(2), 305–310 (1985) A. Picard, H. Backe, H. Barth, J. Bonn, B. Degen, T. Edling, R. Haid, A. Hermanni, P. Leiderer, T. Loeken, A. Molz, R. Moore, A. Osipowicz, E. Otten, M. Przyrembel, M. Schrader, M. Steininger, C. Weinheimer, A solenoid retarding spectrometer with high resolution and transmission for keV electrons.
Furthermore, the nuclear matrix element is energy independent and easily computable. • Molecular tritium can be used in gaseous form at low temperatures. The gaseous form is preferred compared to a condensed source due to lower systematic uncertainties and the feasibility of higher count rates. • Tritium has a low Z value. Consequently, the electronic final states can be computed rather easily using the “sudden approximation” approach. 1 Experimental Overview 31 As tritium has to be used in molecular form at low temperatures, vibrational and rotational excitations of the daughter molecule 3 He need to be taken into account.
Another generic possibility is to measure the energy of the β-decay electrons by recording the minute temperature change in the β-substrate with micro-bolometers. In this case the full differential spectrum is measured, and the source can be used as detector at the same time. The MARE-2 experiment in Italy is currently constructing an array of low temperature calorimeters to measure Rhenium β-decay . Finally, the energy of β-electrons can be measured by detecting their synchrotron radiation.