By Dr. Stefan Nilsson (auth.)
The goal of this booklet is to provide a finished description and dialogue of autonomic nerve functionality within the vertebrates from numerous issues of view. Sections on anatomy, biochemistry of the transmitter elements and the constitution, body structure and pharmacology of the differing kinds of autonomic neurons were integrated, including chapters facing the autonomic apprehensive regulate of a few organs and organ structures within the assorted vertebrate teams. even supposing wisdom in numerous of those parts relies totally on reviews of mammals, a definite emphasis has been put on the autonomic nerve capabilities within the non-mammalian vertebrates to explain, from a comparative physiological standpoint, the diversifications and attainable "phylogenetic tendencies" within the improvement of the autonomic nerve capabilities within the vertebrates. it's very seen that the literature created through the energetic examine actions in the fields of autonomic worried anatomy, histochemistry, biochemistry, pharmacology and body structure is giant certainly, and never all points of the topic can have got reasonable therapy within the current quantity. With an analogy from astronomy, it's was hoping that the mass compressed into this publication has reached the extent of an energy-emitting neutron big name, instead of the black gap which might be the results of compressing too huge a mass.
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Additional resources for Autonomic Nerve Function in the Vertebrates
Paravertebral ganglia are closely associated with chromaffin tissue in some of the lower vertebrates (elasmobranchs, urodele amphibians), but later in the vertebrate evolution the two types of tissue become more separated. All vertebrates, with the possible exception of the cyclostomes and elasmobranchs, have an anatomical arrangement that allows a contribution from the paravertebral ganglia or sympathetic chains to the cranial nerves. The contribution by spinal autonomic fibres is very prominent in the vagi of teleosts and amphibians, but also sufficiently in the other vertebrate groups to justify the designation of "vago-sympathetic trunks".
12. Extra -adrenal ch romaffin cells (arrow) in the superior cervical ganglion of the chicken, Gallus domesticus. Calibration bar = 50 /lm. (Courtesy of Dr. Robert Santer) Fig. 13. Extra-adrenal chromaffin cells (SIF cells) (arrows) surrounding the axon-hillock region of an adrenergic neuron from a sympathetic chain ganglion of the cod, Gadus morhua. Note also the nucleus (n) in the adrenergic nerve cell body. Calibration bar= 50 /lm. Falck-Hillarp fluorescence histochemistry Fig. 14. Varicose adrenergic nerve terminal from the atrium of a lizard, Agama caudospinosa.
The neurons responsible for the release of these substances have been called cholinergic and ad41 renergic respectively by Dale (1933), and the postsynaptic cholinoceptive and adrenoceptive sites (Dale 1954) are now called cholinoceptors and adrenoceptors respectively. Although the term noradrenergic, rather than adrenergic, would more accurately describe the neurons of the higher vertebrates, the term adrenergic is retained in this text. , teleosts: Abrahamsson and Nilsson 1975,1976, birds: de Santis et al.