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By O. Neugebauer

The number of papers assembled the following on various subject matters in historic and medieval astronomy used to be initially recommended through Noel Swerdlow of the collage of Chicago. He used to be additionally instrumental in creating a choice* which might, normally, be at the comparable point as my booklet the precise Sciences in Antiquity. it will possibly additionally offer a normal heritage for my extra technical historical past of old Mathematical Astronomy and for my version of Astronomi­ cal Cuneiform Texts. numerous of those republished articles have been written simply because i wished to place to relaxation well-entrenched historic myths that may now not stand up to shut scrutiny of the resources. Examples are the meant astronomical starting place of the Egyptian calendar (see [9]), the invention of precession via the Babylonians [16], and the "simplification" of the Ptolemaic procedure in Copernicus' De Revolutionibus [40]. In all of my paintings i've got striven to provide as competently as i may what the unique resources display (which is frequently very diverse from the bought view). hence, in [32] dialogue of the technical terminology illuminates the which means of an old passage which has been often misused to help glossy theories approximately old heliocentrism; in [33] a virtually remoted example finds how Greek world-maps relatively appeared; and in [43] the Alexandrian Easter computus, held in awe by means of many historians, is proven from Ethiopic resources to be in response to extremely simple procedures.

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Astronomy and History Selected Essays

The gathering of papers assembled the following on various issues in historical and medieval astronomy used to be initially advised through Noel Swerdlow of the collage of Chicago. He used to be additionally instrumental in creating a choice* which might, quite often, be at the comparable point as my publication the precise Sciences in Antiquity.

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1, and Lange-Neugebauer [1], p. 63. 42 HISTORY OF ANCIENT ASTRONOMY 27 Egyptian years cover the same time interval as 309 lunations. The 25 years equal 9125 days, which are periodically arranged into groups of lunar months of 29 and 30 days. The periodic repetition of this simple scheme corresponds, on the average, very well with the facts; more was apparently not required, and, we may add, more was not obtainable with the available simple mathematical means which are described at the beginning of this section.

This type of mathematics covers a very short period indeed, beginning in the time of Plato (Theaetetus and Eudoxus, ca. ). The main reason for this early interruption of pure mathematics can be found in the purely geometrical type of expression which was adopted in order to gain the higher degree of generality which the geometrical magnitudes represent, in contrast to the field of rational numbers, which was the exclusive concern of oriental mathematics and astronomy. This geometrical language, however, very soon reached such a degree of complication that development beyond the theory of conic-sections was practically impossible.

2 and 3 (Ptolemaic or Roman): ElSalamuni, Rock tombs (Porter-Moss TB V, p. 18) ; mentioned by L'H6te, LE, pp .. 86-87. 4 (Ptolemaic-Roman; Tiberius): Akhmim, Two destroyed temples (Porter-Moss TB V, p. 20) ; mentioned by Pococke DE, I, pp. 77-78. 5 (Tiberius) : Dendera, Temple of Hathor, Outer hypostyle (Porter-Moss TB VI, p. 49). No. 6 (Augustus~Tr~jan): Dendera, Temple of Hathor, East Osiris-chapel central room, ceiling, west half (Porter-Mos~ iB VI, p. 99). Nos. 7 and 8 (1st cent. ): Athribis, Tomb (Porter-Moss TB V, p.

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