By Vladimir Grechka
The ebook is designed for geophysicists who are looking to increase their figuring out of the subsurface and find out about smooth options for extracting additional info from seismic data.
Table of Content
List of Figures
List of Tables
1. Definitions and examples
2. aircraft waves
3. Rays and traveltimes
4. Thomsen parameters
5. general moveout
6. Nonhyperbolic moveout
7. Anistropy estimation from VSP data
8. Fracture characterization
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Additional resources for Applications of seismic anisotropy in the oil and gas industry
Fedorov, 1968; Auld, 1973), whereas the slowness surfaces of shear-waves can have convex and concave regions. 0 (all in km 2/s2). The vertical and horizontal lines indicate the symmetry axis and the isotropy plane, respectively. 1 Group velocity The phase velocity, slowness and polarization of a plane wave discussed in the previous section were found to be functions of the wavefront normal n. Here, we concentrate on the wavefronts themselves. Specifically, we examine their velocities, which are known as the group or ray velocities.
1 Wavefront construction Wavefront construction is perhaps the most computationally intensive ray-tracing technique. 6), we arrived at a nonlinear, first-order partial differential equation for the traveltime t. This equation describes the temporary and spatial evolution of the wavefront ψ (x, t)= 0 initially located at ψ (x, t0) = 0 at time t = t0. 10 is the anisotropic extension of a more familiar isotropic eikonal equation. 46. 11) depending on whether the P- wave polarization vector, UP || p where v (x) is the isotropic velocity.
To these, we need to add two parameters determining the orientation of the symmetry axis. It is useful to define several terms pertaining to TI media. Since all directions in a plane normal to the TI symmetry axis are equivalent, this plane is called the isotropy plane. Any plane that contains the symmetry axis is termed the symmetry- axis plane. If the symmetry- axis direction of a TI medium deviates from the 32 vertical, such a medium is called tilted transversely isotropic (TTI). The main practical application of tilted transverse isotropy is the description of anisotropy caused by dipping beds, for instance, shales.