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Extra resources for Animal traction in Africa (GTZ-Publikationen)
Compared to seals, penguins are not very economical with their oxygen stores. Diving birds and mammals are less sensitive to carbon dioxide than land animals. The reason for this is most likely the greater buffering ability of the blood of penguins and other diving vertebrates. The effects on the penguin body of the raised hydrostatic pressure are less well investigated. According to Kooyman emperor penguins dive up to 265 m deep. At this depth gas-filled body cavities will be compressed to one twenty-sixth of their volume at sea-level.
Page 19 Chapter 5 Penguins as Diving Birds Penguins are the only avian order of which all species are flightless and specialized for diving. It is not surprising that their extraordinary adaptations to the oceanic life have attracted the attention of physiologists for the study of the diving behavior and the associated physiological processes. This account draws heavily on the results reported by Kooyman and his co-workers. The diving behavior and diving depth of penguins depend on the depth of their prey which may vary with the seasons and with the time of day.
For the Antarctic, the conservation of living resources is generally accepted. Appendices III-VIII to the 1959 Antarctic Treaty prohibit "killing, wounding, capturing or molesting of any native mammal or native bird or any attempt at any such act, except in accordance with a permit" (Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora, Article VI). Every specimen (animal or egg) collected with a collecting permit for scientific purposes has to be approved by and reported to SCAR (Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research) committees.