By Maximilian J. Telford, D.T.J. Littlewood
Animal existence, now and during the last part billion years, is very varied. Describing and knowing the evolution of this range of physique plans - from vertebrates equivalent to people and fish to the varied invertebrate teams together with sponges, bugs, molluscs, and the various teams of worms - is an incredible target of evolutionary biology. during this ebook, a bunch of top researchers undertake a contemporary, built-in method of describe how present molecular genetic recommendations and disciplines as different as palaeontology, embryology, and genomics were mixed, leading to a dramatic renaissance within the learn of animal evolution. the decade has obvious becoming curiosity in evolutionary biology fuelled through a wealth of information from molecular biology. sleek phylogenies integrating facts from molecules, embryological info, and morphology of dwelling and fossil taxa supply a large consensus of the foremost branching styles of the tree of existence; furthermore, the hyperlinks among phenotype and genotype are more and more good understood. This has led to a competent tree of relationships that has been largely authorised and has spawned various new and intriguing questions that require a reassessment of the origins and radiation of animal lifestyles. the focal point of this quantity is on the point of significant animal teams, the morphological suggestions that outline them, and the mechanisms of switch to their embryology that experience led to their evolution. present examine topics and destiny customers are highlighted together with phylogeny reconstruction, comparative developmental biology, the price of other resources of information and the significance of fossils, homology evaluate, personality evolution, phylogeny of significant teams of animals, and genome evolution. those themes are built-in within the mild of a 'new animal phylogeny', to supply clean insights into the styles and approaches of animal evolution. Animal Evolution provides a well timed and finished assertion of development within the box for educational researchers requiring an authoritative, balanced and updated review of the subject. it's also meant for either top point undergraduate and graduate scholars taking classes in animal evolution, molecular phylogenetics, evo-devo, comparative genomics and linked disciplines.
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Additional info for Animal Evolution: Genomes, Fossils, and Trees
Adhaerens is the earliest branching metazoan. Recently, Dunn et al. (2008) published a phylogeny based upon 150 EST-derived genes that supports ctenophores as branching before two sampled sponge species. g. , 2007). The former scenario is not supported by the fossil record—sponges would have had to undergo morphological simplification before their appearance as the first recognizable metazoan fossils—and the latter explanation would require the improbable, independent evolution of nerves, muscles, and a gut in the ctenophore and cnidarian/bilaterian lineages.
1). This resemblance was fi rst noted by Henry James-Clark in 1866, prompting one of two interpretations: either that sponges and choanoflagellates are derived from an ancestral species that used choanoflagellate-like cells to capture bacterial prey, or that these cell types are only superficially similar and have evolved independently. 2). , 2007). 1 Similarities between choanoﬂagellates and sponge choanocytes. Choanoﬂagellates are heterotrophic microeukaryotes that use an apical ﬂagellum to swim and to generate water ﬂow, thus trapping bacterial prey on an actin-ﬁlled microvillar collar.
Recently, Dunn et al. (2008) published a phylogeny based upon 150 EST-derived genes that supports ctenophores as branching before two sampled sponge species. g. , 2007). The former scenario is not supported by the fossil record—sponges would have had to undergo morphological simplification before their appearance as the first recognizable metazoan fossils—and the latter explanation would require the improbable, independent evolution of nerves, muscles, and a gut in the ctenophore and cnidarian/bilaterian lineages.