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Job enlargement is an alternative strategy which involves increasing the number of tasks which any individual will do so that she has sight of a clear finished product as well as some discretion in the sequencing of actions. People 25 The research findings on job redesign are inconclusive, on both efficiency and humanitarian grounds. In general it seems that the schemes are most successful in 'efficiency' terms when managements are highly committed to them, when employees positively favour and desire their introduction, when workers have been involved in discussions prior to their introduction (Englestad, 1972) and when workers are given clear goals, clear feedback on performance and control over their performance.

Coch and French (1948) used participatory persuasive techniques successfully to facilitate changes in methods of work and payment in a sewing machine factory. Similarly, successful attitude change was recorded by Lewin (1948) in persuading wartime American housewives to use liver, kidneys and other offal, and by Jaques (1951) in his attempts to improve understanding between different levels in a London engineering works. Others have drawn attention, as every evangelist knows, to the importance of getting participants to register a conscious decision to 'change attitudes', thereby setting the seal on new views.

Indeed, sometimes they positively act against them. The art for managers is to choose a system that is likely to sustain the behaviours they identify as most important. Social relations and motivation One reason why incentive schemes fail to affect productivity is that workers wish to assert their independence from management. It was the discovery that groups of workers acted collectively in the face of management initiatives to control working conditions that led to another view about motivation.

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