By Marcel Pelgrom
This textbook is suitable to be used in graduate-level curricula in analog-to-digital conversion, in addition to for training engineers short of a cutting-edge reference on info converters. It discusses a number of analog-to-digital conversion rules, together with sampling, quantization, reference new release, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation. This publication provides an summary of the state-of-the-art during this box and makes a speciality of problems with optimizing accuracy and pace, whereas decreasing the facility level.
This new, 3rd version emphasizes novel calibration options, the categorical necessities of latest platforms, the results of 22-nm know-how and the necessity for a extra statistical method of accuracy. Pedagogical improvements to this variation comprise extra, new routines, solved examples to introduce all key, new strategies and warnings, feedback and tricks, from a practitioner's point of view, anyplace applicable. huge historical past info and sensible assistance, from designing a PCB, to lay-out points, to trade-offs on method point, supplement the dialogue of simple ideas, making this publication a invaluable reference for the skilled engineer.
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Extra resources for Analog-to-Digital Conversion
1a with the sequence of Dirac pulses, resulting in a time-discrete signal in Fig. 1b. t D 1 nD1 X / ı. 10) nD 1 A useful property of the Fourier transform is that a multiplication of time-domain functions corresponds to a convolution of their frequency counterparts in the Fourier domain. f D 1 / kD1 X ı. 11) kD 1 Evaluation of this integral is easy as the result of an integral with a Dirac function is the integral function evaluated at the values where the Dirac function is active. f /. fs ˙ f /.
8 Vrms Thermal noise in electronics is modeled as a noise source connected to a real impedance. For circuit calculations this works, but impedances are not noisy, electrons with random energy are. 13 As thermal noise is an atomic phenomenon, its frequency span ends where sub-atomic mechanisms, as described by quantum physics, start. A rule of thumb limits the standard noise spectrum at 1 THz. t/ over the time period 1=! 29) The magnitude of the resistor (the origin of the noise) is not part of this first-order expression.
The fraction of frequency spacing between the extremes of the base and its alias with respect to the sample rate determines the number of poles needed in the anti-alias filter. A filter will suppress signals at a rate of 6 dB per octave per filter pole, Fig. 9. Sharp band-limiting filters require many accurately tuned poles. Additional amplification is needed, and therefore these filters tend to become expensive and hard-to-handle in a production environment. On the other hand, there are some good reasons not to choose for an arbitrary high sample rate: the required capacity for storing the digital data will increase linear with the sample rate, as well as the power needed for any subsequent data processing.