Download Allozyme Electrophoresis. A Handbook for Animal Systematics by B. J. Richardson PDF

By B. J. Richardson

Inherited enzyme diversifications, studied utilizing electrophoresis, can be utilized as markers for the identity of people, inhabitants constitution research, the delineation of species obstacles and phytogenetic reconstruction. the aim of this ebook is to explain, in one handy instruction manual, the entire theoretical and useful issues suitable to these desiring to use electrophoresis as a device for answering such questions.

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Additional resources for Allozyme Electrophoresis. A Handbook for Animal Systematics and Population Studies

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Allelic variation in introns The segments of the DNA present as introns are never translated to form part of the protein under study and therefore allelic variation in introns is not detectable at the level of allozyme electrophoresis. B. e. the genetic code is redundant. Usually the various triplets differ by only one base, commonly in the third position. Therefore such allelic variation will not be detected using elec­ trophoresis, but then it will not be detectable at the protein level by any method.

To distinguish classes C) and D) above (see Coyne, 1982). These studies have shown that as few as one sixth of the alleles that lead to amino-acid substitutions may be detectable by standard elec­ trophoresis. However, such studies still leave uncertain the proportion of allelic variation due to A) and B) above. The solution to this problem will only be revealed by DNA analysis. While this is now a feasible pro­ position, to date only one study of this type has been made. Kreitman (1983) sequenced eleven cloned Drosophila melanogaster Adh genes, and found 43 allelic variants.

The first category aims to assess and explain the levels of genetic variation that occur in natural populations, a pursuit that really requires other approaches. The second category utilizes elec­ trophoretically detected variants primarily as markers of the genome. The applications discussed in this book fall clearly into this second category. These observations show that electrophoresis is less than a perfect tool for detecting variation between individuals, but this should not affect the interpretation of observed allelic differences (Ferguson, 1980).

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