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By John M. Weiler

This distinct source offers allergic and airway stipulations noticeable in leisure and aggressive athletes-covering themes from exercise-induced bronchial asthma to chilly air-induced rhinitis.

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Example text

It is possible that these mechanisms may be represented to a variable degree among individuals. The degree of VA/Q mismatching can be completely documented only by the MIGET technique. Although, the increase in VA/Q mismatching that has been documented by the MIGET technique is an intriguing finding that would explain some of the reduced PaO2 in athletes, the observation itself begs for an explanation [110]. Recently, Wilson pointed out that the width of the VA or Q peaks obtained by the MIGET technique represent the width of the underlying frequency distributions of VA/Q ratios, and are not independent pieces of information [120].

Page 20 Fig. 9 Dead space ventilation relative to tidal volume (VD/VT) during progressive exercise in young untrained adults (), young endurance athletes (), and moderately fit older adults (age = 70 yr) (). Note that although the aged have a larger VD/VT at rest and during exercise, they demonstrate a similar relative decrease. (From Ref. ) With on-line analysis of exercise parameters, the mixed expired gas concentration can be calculated without making an actual collection of mixed expired gas.

Thus, with higher and of exercise, the expired gas waveforms become steeper. The end-expired PCO2 (PETCO2) usually exceeds arterial PaCO2 in heavy exercise [64,118]. If PETCO2 remains below PaCO2 at moderate to heavy work intensities, there may be larger than normal contribution to expired gas from acini with high /Q ratios, such as might occur in pulmonary vascular or parenchymal disorders. Because the first part of the breath contains gas from the anatomical dead space, which contains inspired gas from the previous breath, the mixture of gas collected over an entire breath (or averaged over many breaths) reflects a mixture of gas from gas-exchanging acini and dead space.

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