Download African Archaeology, Third Edition by D. W. Phillipson David W. Phillipson PDF

By D. W. Phillipson David W. Phillipson

David Phillipson offers an illustrated account of African prehistory, from the origins of humanity via eu colonization during this revised and increased version of his unique paintings. Phillipson considers Egypt and North Africa of their African context, comprehensively reviewing the archaeology of West, East, imperative and Southern Africa. His e-book demonstrates the relevance of archaeological learn to realizing modern Africa and stresses the continent's contribution to the cultural background of humankind.

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Rudolfensis has been proposed (Lieberman et al. 1996). 0 million years ago. The rounded skull-vault with a welldeveloped forehead housed a brain which, at about 800 cubic centimetres, was some 70 per cent larger than those of the contemporary P. ) boisei. The sagittal crest and massive muscle attachments of the latter species were not present in 1470. 75 million years ago, if not before, a second species of Homo may be recognised in East Africa. It was at one time given the designation H. erectus to emphasise its perceived similarity to certain East and Southeast Asian fossils, but some authorities now consider that the single designation is inappropriate and prefer to class the East African material as H.

More recently, further sites have been discovered in the Sterkfontein vicinity (Mitchell 2002 and references). Between them these sites have yielded the remains of several hundred australopithecines. Although over the years these specimens have been attributed to a bewildering variety of species and genera, it is now widely believed that most of them belong to two species: A. ) robustus. 3 million years has been proposed (Partridge et al. 1999), shows features which suggest that it may be morphologically as close to A.

The best-known fossil primate of this time is the forest-dwelling Proconsul from Rusinga Island in Lake Victoria (A. C. Walker et al. 1993). Subsequently, the hominoid line is represented around 15 million years ago in western Kenya by Kenyapithecus, which shows important developments in skull, teeth and wrist. It probably lived in the open woodland that became widespread in East Africa in mid-Miocene times, before the completion of the great earth movements which resulted in the formation of the Rift Valley (Pickford 1983, 1986).

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