By Samuel Merrill III, Bernard Grofman
Professors Merrill and Grofman strengthen a unified version that comes with voter motivations and assesses its empirical predictions--for either voter selection and candidate strategy--in the USA, Norway, and France. The analyses express mix of proximity, course, discounting, and get together identity fit with the mildly yet now not super divergent guidelines which are attribute of many two-party and multiparty electorates. All of those motivations are essential to comprehend the linkage among candidate factor positions and voter personal tastes.
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Additional resources for A Unified Theory of Voting: Directional and Proximity Spatial Models
We saw that the former could be modified by discounting (Grofman), the latter by taking overall voter or candidate intensity into account (Rabinowitz and Macdonald). Even with these emendations, each of these models singles out one (or in some cases two) aspects of voter decision making. We expect each to be of limited usefulness by itself in explaining voter behavior, and empirical studies bear out this expectation (see Chapters 4–7). In this chapter, we specify a unified model intended to incorporate the features of all the various pure models.
Nevertheless, the notion of a single circle of acceptability appears inadequate as it ignores the fact that assessment of extremeness depends heavily on the voter’s own position. Iversen (1994) argues that the constraint implicit in Rabinowitz and Macdonald’s idea of a circle of acceptability can better be modeled by a function idiosyncratic to each voter. Certainly, the perception of unacceptability due to extremism is not the same for each voter. For example, in American politics, a strong conservative may consider a liberal Democrat unacceptable, but certainly a liberal Democrat would not.
In particular, any voter indifferent between two candidates under one model will likewise be indifferent under the other. 3, where with a suitable change of coordinates we take the status quo point to be the origin, so that the discounted position of A is given by AЈ = dA.