By Michael J. Hogan
A go of Iron presents the fullest account but of the nationwide protection nation that emerged within the first decade of the chilly warfare. Michael J. Hogan lines the method of state-making via struggles to unify the defense force, harness technology to army reasons, mobilize army manpower, regulate the security funds, and distribute the price of security around the economic system. President Harry S. Truman and his successor have been in the course of a primary contest over the nation's political id and postwar function, and their efforts made up our minds the scale and form of the nationwide protection country that eventually emerged.
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Extra resources for A Cross of Iron: Harry S. Truman and the Origins of the National Security State, 1945–1954
Taft of Ohio, who was denounced as an irresponsible isolationist. But it did not silence the dissenting voices entirely, particularly the voices of conservative critics who challenged the new direction in American policy and spelled out its most serious implications. The discourse between the conservative defenders of an older political culture and the national security managers was itself framed in a binary system of symbolic representation. Both sides shared a similar vocabulary and set of symbols, both associated their critics with an unAmerican other, and both spoke in a language of ideological opposites, such as democracy or totalitarianism, freedom or tyranny, centralization or decentralization, civil or military, free-market capitalism or controlled economy, loyalty or disloyalty, isolationism or internationalism.
210-13. 3° Truman quoted in Forrestal Diaries, 88; and Donovan, Conflict and Crisis, 141-42. 38 A Cross of Iron he announced in a much-cited article published in 1944. " 32 Determined to accomplish this goal without diminishing the powers of his office, he urged Congress in December 1945 to unify the armed services in a single military establishment. Truman's speech drew a tight connection between national purpose and organizational imperatives. The war, he told Congress, had demonstrated the need for a national security organization that could use scarce resources efficiently, reconcile competing claims in an integrated budget, and coordinate military and foreign policies.
They could not afford the higher wages demanded by labor, the higher taxes needed to support liberal social programs, and the lower tariffs required to forge a multilateral system of world trade. 9 These concerns were evident in the work of the Austrian economist Friedrich von Hayek and the Yale political scientist Harold D. Lass well, both of whom sought to explain how the modern state imperilled the country's democratic habits and institutions. In his classic polemic on the Road to Serfdom, published in 1944, Hayek used the concept of totalitarianism to collapse the differences between fascism and communism, arguing that both were aspects of a contemporary collectivism that relied on economic planning and state programs to promote social welfare.